Structural elements of a sentence

The subject of a sentence is the person, thing, or that is performing the action of the sentence. The subject comes before the verb, and it represents what or who the sentence is about. A subject can be a noun, a pronoun, or a phrase.

Some examples:

Julie is a big fan of this singer.

She can’t stand him.

Sara and her friend are having fun.

Being a good friend can be hard.

A verb is a word that describes an action or a state of being. The verb is the key word in a sentence, and no sentence can exist without one.  The shortest of all sentences consists of a single verb used in the imperative form. Example: Look !

There are two sorts of verbs:

  • Dynamic verbs describe actions or changes of state: examples are go, become,  , sit down, move, etc.
  • Stative verbs describe condition or state of being: examples are be, like, know, etc.

If you want to study more about verbs and to gain information about different types of verbs, I recommend you take a look at “parts of speech” in the grammar part of the site.

Some examples:

She agreed with her.

Can I borrow your car?

She spends a lot of time chatting with her friends.

They are besties.

He was the life and soul of the party.

The object of a sentence is the person or thing that receives the action of the verb. It is the ‘who’ or ‘what’ that the subject does something to. The object of a sentence is used after the verb.

We have three different types of objects:

  • Direct Object : The direct object is the entity (person, thing, or process) that is directly concerned by the action expressed through the verb, or  is the entity that explains the action or process. It is the complement of a transitive verb. It can be a pronoun, a noun, a noun phrase, or more than one of these. A direct object answers the question of who(m) or what.

Some examples:  

I like cookies.

 I like them.

I like people who are honest.

I like people who are honest and don’t lie, including you.

  • Indirect object :  The indirect object is the person or entity that is the recipient of the action, or for whom the action is done.  When the indirect object follows the direct object, it is  introduced with the preposition to; but if it precedes the direct object, to is omitted. An indirect object answers the question of to whom, for whom, or for what.

Some examples: 

I gave a flower to the girl.

I gave the girl a flower.

I gave her a flower.

I sent her a letter.

She bought me a dress.

They gave me a nice card.

  • Many English sentences have prepositional phrases. A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, and an object of a preposition. The object of a preposition is a noun. 

Some examples:

she put her keys on the desk.

Her house is across the street.

The vase is on the table.

The dog is in the house.

She can’t live without chocolate.

Exercises

Mark the words in these sentences as subjects, objects,(direct, indirect, object of preposition), and verb.

  1. I want pizza.
  2. She bought me a nice dress.
  3. I can’t sit next to the window.
  4. John and his brother played the guitar.
  5. She is swimming in the pool. 
  6. I told her the truth.
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Reyhane Alizade

S:subject/v:verb/o:object
1)i:S /want:V/pizza:O
2)she:S/bought:V/me:O/a nice dress:O
3)i:S/can’t sit:V/next to the door:O
4)John and his brother:S/played:V/the guitar:O
5)she:S/is:V/swimming:o/in the pool:o
6)i:s/told:v/her:o/the truth:o

samira alitaneh

S:subject/v:verb/o:object
1)i:S /want:V/pizza:O
2)she:S/bought:V/me:O/a nice dress:O
3)i:S/can’t sit:V/next to the door:O
4)John and his brother:S/played:V/the guitar:O
5)she:S/is:V/swimming:o/in the pool:o
6)i:s/told:v/her:o/the truth:o

Rezasoltani

S:subject/v:verb/o:object
1)i:S /want:V/pizza:O
2)she:S/bought:V/me:O/a nice dress:O
3)i:S/can’t sit:V/next to the door:O
4)John and his brother:S/played:V/the guitar:O
5)she:S/is:V/swimming:o/in the pool:o
6)i:s/told:v/her:o/the truth:o

maryam kheibary

1.I=subject/want=verb/pizza=object
2.She=sub/bought=verb/me=obj/nice dress=obj
3.I=sub/can’t sit=verb/next to the door=obj
4.John and his brother =sub/played=verb/the guitar=obj
5.She=sub/is swimming=verb/in the pool=obj
6.I=sub/told=verb/her=obj/the truth=obj

zahra hosseini

1.i:s / want:v / pizza:direct obj
2.she:s / bought:v / me:indirect obj / a nice dress:direct obj
3.i:s / can’t sit:v / next to the window:obj of prepo
4.john and his brother:s / played:v / the guitar:direct obj
5.she:s / is swimming:v / in the pool:obj of prepo
6.i:s / told:v / her:indirect obj / the truth:direct obj

Amir hosein Alizadeh

1_i:S /want:V/pizza:O
2_she:S/bought:V/me:O/a nice dress:O
3_i:S/can’t sit:V/next to the door:O
4_John and his brother:S/played:V/the guitar:O
5_she:S/is:V/swimming:o/in the pool:o
6_i:s/told:v/her:o/the truth:o

Zeinab Karimian

1.I:subject/want:verb/pizza:object
2.She:sub/bought:verb/me:obj/nice dress:obj
3.I:sub/can’t sit:verb/next to the door:obj
4.John and his brother :sub/played:verb/the guitar:obj
5.She:sub/is swimming:verb/in the pool:obj
6.I:sub/told:verb/her:obj/the truth:obj

Zeinab Hasany

S:subject/V:verb/O:object
1) i=s/want=v/pizza=o
2) she=s/bought=v/me=o/nice dress=o
3) i=s/can’t sit=v/next to the window= o
4) john and his brother=s/played=v/the guitar=o
5) she=s/is swimming=v/in the pool= o
6) i=s/told=v/her=o/ the truth=o

zahra delghavi

1.I=subject/want=verb/pizza _ object
2.She=sub/bought=verb/me=obj/nice dress_obj
3.I=sub/can’t sit=verb/next to the door_obj
4.John and his brother =sub/played=verb/the guitar_obj
5.She=sub/is swimming=verb/in the pool_obj
6.I=sub/told=verb/her=obj/the truth_obj

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