Present perfect

Present perfect

Have/has + past participle

Present perfect tense expresses the situations that began in the past, continued to the present, and may continue in the the future.

Example: I have watched three movies this week. 

(I watched three movies from Saturday till now which is Monday, but this week is not finished yet and I might watch more movies)

Since

  • Since expresses the idea that something began at a specific time in the past and continues to the present. Since is followed by the mention of a specific point in time: an hour, a day, a week, a month, a year, …

Examples:

She has been here since six sharp.

She has been here since yesterday

She has been here since last Monday.

She has been here since last June.

  • Since may also introduce a time clause. Notice that the main clause is present perfect and the since clause is simple past.

Examples:

I have lived here since I was a kid.

He has met many people since he came here.

They have watched TV since they got home.

 

For

For is followed by the mention of a length of time: five minutes, four hours, three days, five months, six years, …

Examples: 

She has been here for ten minutes.

She has been here for for two hours.

She has been here for about a week.

She has been here for more than a month.

She has been here for a long time.

 

Just and recently

  • Present perfect expresses an activity or situation that happened before now, at some unspecific or unknown time in the past. common words that express this idea are just, recently, already, yet, ever, and never. 

Examples: 

He has just eaten dinner.

He has recently changed his job.

  • Sometimes present perfect refers to an activity that was repeated two, several, or more times before now, at unspecified times in the past.

Examples:

I have eaten at that restaurant many times.

She has eaten here twice.

 

Already and yet

  • Already is used in positive sentences. It can come after the helping verb or at the end of the sentence. When we use already, it means that something happened before now, before this time. 

Examples: 

He has already left.

He has left already.

  • Yet is used in negative sentences and comes at the end of the sentence. When we use yet, it means something did not happen before now, but it may happen in the future. 

Example: 

He hasn’t left yet.

She hasn’t eaten yet

 

Exercises

Fill in the blanks with one of these words: since, for, already, yet. 

  1. John has been in Japan ……………. Sunday.
  2. John has been in Japan …………..five days.
  3. Jon hasn’t been to Japan ……….
  4. Jane has ………….been to Japan.
  5. My uncle has lived in Poland ………..15 years.
  6. My uncle has lived in Poland ……………he was a child.
  7. She has been in her office ………………8 o’clock.
  8. She has been in her office ………….5 hours now.
  9. She hasn’t been to her office …………….
  10. They haven’t arrived ………………… We are still waiting for them.
  11. She has ……………….gone to bed. 
  12. We have ……………..met.
  13. I haven’t told him …………..
  14. She has bought a new dress, but she hasn’t worn it …………..
  15. This house has been empty …………..many years.
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